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andreas waltzman

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Reply with quote  #1 
Aristotle suggested the first color-music formula.. And Plato has thought the idea of eight concentric circles each with a distinctive color and tone...

The theory of color appeared for the first time in Leon Battista Alberti (c.1435) writings and in L
eonardo da Vinci notes (c.1490), the tradition of "color theory" began in the 18th century, in a controversy over Newton's theory of color (Optics, 1704 ) and the nature of the so-called primary colors. . Influenced by the analogy between colors and sounds ,Newton wanted to identify seven colors in the spectrum, in proportion to Western music scale. In 1704, using a prism, Newton studied the light waves. He tried to match the notes with the colors (ie, the optical spectrum ROYGBIV with each octave of the key of C). He then observed that light waves and musical sounds are vibrations that can be measured and so arranged on a scale, with color and sound at least the same.

Gioseffo Zarlino correlated the primary octave in white and black, as well as the intermediate colors of green, red and blue (Le istitutioni harmoniche, 1558, note iii, Chapter 8). Athanasius Kircher wrote in the paintings the theories of proportions, including musical notes, colors, light intensity and luminance (Ars Magna et lucis umbrae, 1646, p. 67).Four years later he devised a system that connects colors with intervals (Musurgia universalis, 1650, I, 568). Marin Cureau de la Chambre carries analogies derived from the musical theory of intervals in pairs of colors, and he invented a "system with colors and harmonies" (Nouvelles observations and conjectures sur la nature de l'iris, 1650, p.215). All these efforts in analogy, and many others, were based on Aristotle's theory of color. Although the
specific associations of these systems can no longer be reconstructed in detail, and although works by other writers contain contradictions, it is clear that they represent a rational perception in which all phenomena rely on the same principles and reflect the harmony of the world.

The ancient Greeks were the first to build a color scale divided into seven parts with the analogy we encounter in the seven musical notes and the seven known planets. At this scale, all colors are produced from a mixture of black and white. So the tonal intervals were transferred to the colors. Aristotle's theory of color was considered valid in the 17th century, and different colors were associated with various tonal intervals in the 16th and 17th centuries, although usually in conjunction with further analogies in heterogeneous fields such as levels of existence, planets, elements, phases of human life, and degrees of knowledge. The aim of these proportions was to define the harmony of colors.

Greeks starting with Thales of Miletus(640-546 BC), they began to look for the causes of the various phenomena, including the optics, and to establish and develop the visual science, which, of course, begins with light and vision. Pythagoras of Samos (580-500 BC) and his followers believed that vision was due to light rays reflected in the various objects and emitted by the eyes. Empedocles (495-435 BC) somewhat improves the theory and interprets various phenomena, accepting that light is a particle motion of very high velocity that derives from the illuminating body, while the natural philosophers Leukippos and Demokritos (460-379 BC .) naturally support the particle nature of light and talk about emissions, but always from the eyes of people. Plato (428-347 BC) also deals with the perspective and tries to reconcile the different views by suggesting that the light is a fire or something like a fire to reach the frightening Aristotle who said: " The light is in some way the color of the transparent when the transparent becomes translucent or under its fire or other reason such as the upper body (the sun) and because this body has what it with fire. If the darkness is deprived of this kind of transcendence, be sure that it is in the presence of the beast (the light seems to be against the darkness.) Darkness is the deprivation of this state of the transparent so that it is obvious that the light is also the presence of this state.

Then, Epicurus (341-270 BC), Euclid (365-300 BC), Archimedes (287-212 BC), Claudius Ptolemy (287-212 BC) and Heron of Alexandria give new impetus to visual science and its practical applications. It is known the story that Archimedes with mirrors that gathered the solar rays burned the Roman fleet during the Second Carthusian War. It took about 2,000 years to add something new to the theories of the nature of light ,with the theories of Cardesio and Newton at the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century , who supported the particle nature of light (not so much new theory of course). However, phenomena that were not interpreted by particle nature later forced Huygens to support wave nature (a mechanism of transport, that is to say energy), and Euler to agree with him who said that the sun is a bell that bells light, and Thomas Young , who in 1801 proved the assumed wave nature of light. This theory presupposed the existence of a resilient means in which and with the help of which the light is propagated. So they accepted the existence of the ether, the forgotten essence of Aristotle, which exists everywhere in the universe.

But the investigation continued, the hunt of light did not end, since, Michelson & Morley in 1887, with their famous experiment, they proved that ether did not exist and therefore the wave theory of light (a mechanical wave like sound) collapsed. So we arrived at Maxwell, who proved in his famous equations that the light is still wave but electromagnetic (like the radio and television) and as such does not need a means of diffusion, so the ether is not needed. In fact, Maxwell defined light as part of an immense continuous spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, the one that irritates the eye. A common feature of all electromagnetic waves is speed, 300,000 kilometers per second, and what differentiates them is the frequency (or wavelength). After 25 years, Hertz confirmed the electromagnetic wave nature of light, electromagnetic waves called it by his name and airwaves. These waves represent the propagation of electric (E) and magnetic (H) fields perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation and are produced by accelerated electric charges, pulsed electric dipoles etc.


But in 1900 Max Planck, a German physicist, introduces the concept of quantum (energy packs), which will be renamed into photons, and the theory of light is reshaped. The light consists of the photons, says Planck, particles with a zero mass of calm, and each photon equals a packet of energy. Particular theory returns to the forefront, and the old contradictions between the supporters of the waves and the supporters of the particle nature were revived. In 1905, another German physicist, Albert Einstein, to interpret the photoelectric phenomenon introduces the concept of the photoelectron and expresses the view that the light consists of particles but having wavelengths, accepting in fact the correctness of both theories and comparing the warring portions. In 1923, an American physicist, Arthur Compton, showed that photons have momentum and strengthened Einstein's theory.

Nowadays, with the evolution of quantum mechanics and the contribution of Niels Bohr, De Broglie,, Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, Max Born, and Richard Feynman,things are simpler (?) We accept that light sometimes behaves like a wave and sometimes as a particle of particles and ... we cleaned it! Besides, the electron, a subatomic particle, is sometimes accepted as a wave and sometimes as a particle, depending on the phenomenon we want to observe, and in general we claim that matter equates to energy that sometimes manifests itself as a wave and sometimes as a particle. Matter and energy are the two sides of the same coin. But what the currency is, in itself, is ignored. In fact, what we observe is not nature itself, but a way of reacting to it. Similarly, how do we observe e.g. the electron, it reacts and what it shows to us is its reaction, wave or particle. That is, after two millennia, we have remained in the ideas of the ancient Greeks for the light, they have simply been made clearer, perhaps even more elegant, since the great evolution of mathematics has helped to that end.

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9ways

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Reply with quote  #2 
Excellent historical timeline, well said. As we can see, there's been quite a 'footprint' left investigating Color/Sound association.
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Johnetone

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Reply with quote  #3 
I kind of wish I could get my hands on a light/sound synthesizer that maybe worked like a theremin or that had a ribbon for touch control. It would be really interesting to try and compose light/color in the same way we compose music. Or to take composed music and reproduce it as light. There's basically an octave of visible light to the human eye. So having a chromatic, or even micro-tonal display that lit up as the corresponding tones were manipulated would be lot's of fun (and maybe a little educational/therapeutic as well)!
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RichG

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Reply with quote  #4 

Andreas, thank you for the extensive post.

Interesting and rather odd idea of the Greeks that light waves are emitted from our eyes. 
I mean, isn't it just a little too obvious that light is received by the eyes, not emitted from them?
How does one reconcile such a perspective with the rising and setting of the sun, or the illumination brought by fire, and the darkness from the extinguishing of the fire? 

Also, in that paragraph where Aristotle is quoted, maybe this was mis-typed:
"...and because this body has what it with fire."
I don't know what that is supposed to mean.


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Johnetone

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Reply with quote  #5 
Rich, I had a psychedelically enhanced experience wherein I could see light travelling the other direction from me as well as to me. It's really hard to explain, but I often wonder if light acts as a kind of thread or tubule in the way that it projects. An example of this idea in practice is how a stream of light can be seen from the source of a spotlight extending into the heavens. Even though the cause of this is light diffusing/refracting through the molecules of the atmosphere, it is still kind of interesting.

In fact, I theorized nearly 20 years ago in college that spacecraft of the future would be able to use light itself as a sort of "Rail" upon which it could not only use light itself as a guide for cosmic travel, but even a rail upon which it could pull itself. It is now starting to become a reality with the invention of "Light Sails" that are now being tested!

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LightSail

Pretty incredible. But if we think of the photonic/particulate nature of light, this makes perfect sense as to why and how it could possibly work.
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RichG

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Reply with quote  #6 

Well, light is reflecting off of you - so if I see you I am receiving the light that is coming from you by way of reflection. Additionally, we all radiate an electromagnetic field, and of course light is electromagnetic radiation. So to perceive in an enhanced state light traveling away from you as well as toward you really doesn't seem too strange of an idea to me. As far as what I know of current scientific understanding, that self-generated electromagnetic radiation is strongest coming from our hearts.

The idea in the post above, "Pythagoras...and his followers believed that vision was due to light rays reflected in the various objects and emitted by the eyes" takes this into a somewhat different realm, or at least that's how it is appearing to me.
 

PS - Interesting about the Light Sail!


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